«Vestnik Moskovskogo avtomobilno-dorozhnogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta (MADI)» | Number 4(59), December 2019
OPERATION OF ROAD TRANSPORT
Ilya V. Arifullin, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Alexey V. Terentiev, Ph.D., associate professor, email@example.com,
MADI, 64 Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia,
Irina V. Talanova, undergraduate, Irina_talanova@mail.ru,
SPbGASU, 4, Vtoraya Krasnoarmeiskaya ul., St. Petersburg, 190005, Russia
Abstract. Automobile transportation companies’ current activities show that choosing a car requires, for instance, not only obligatory prioritization of particular criteria. According to these companies’ practices, regardless of the nature of works performed or types of goods transported, usually, there is a strong need to look for differentiable values of relative importance coefficients according to a certain predetermined efficiency level. For example, in the case when a range of characteristics is to be taken into simultaneously altogether (where each one of the characteristics is determined by its own indicators) and, moreover, when the optimization process has to be achieved. In that case, the balanced relative importance coefficients’ values should be obtained in a strict compliance with the targets. A scientific approach to solving this problem requires a decision based on not one but rather multiple efficiency indicators. The focal point of this article is the multicriteria method of solving the problem on the principle of zoning and compliance with a structured correlation of probabilities of all kinds of environmental conditions. The abovementioned method is well applicable for creating a multicriteria analytical model for car lifespan determining. Such an approach is of a high practical importance as it allows to determine the mileage of a vehicle efficient use and the optimal exploitation period under multicriteria environment.
Keywords: vector optimization, vehicle lifespan, zoning methods, decision-making method, weighting coefficients, decision efficiency, multicriteria problem.
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Ngoulou-A-Ndzeli, postgraduate, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. Common problems are discussed in the article that associated with the diagnosis of technical systems, internal combustion engines or electric vehicle engines, associated with the influence of climatic factors. Particular attention is paid to the problem of vibration diagnostics of rolling stock engines in the Republic of Congo. The theoretical part of the work is based on the analysis of random processes and time series, the theory of spectral representation of signals, modern methods of spectral analysis, the theory of wavelet transformation, the theory of fuzzy logic and decision making. Methods and algorithms for describing the technical conditions of rolling stock are given. Reliability analysis tools are provided, including the probabilistic ones. The distributions of the failure processes of technical units depending on temperature conditions are obtained.Keywords: diagnostic parameters, sensors, malfunctions, monitoring, diagnosis, diagnosis efficiency
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- Shakhov V.G. Informacionnye tekhnologii i algoritmy v diagnostirovanii zheleznodorozhnoj tekhniki (Information technology and algorithms in the diagnosis of railway equipment), Omsk, Omskij nauchnyj vestnik, 2010, 153 p.
Tat’yana E. Mel’nikova, Ph.D., associate professor, email@example.com,
Sergey E. Mel’nikov, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Anna I. Pantakova, student, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. The article analyzes the problems of unmanned motor transport, discusses the pros and cons of its implementation. Research works on the development and implementation of these cars is very active both in Russia abroad. Unmanned public road transport is being tested and put into practice; there is an active automation of personal transport, which will move on public roads. Experts predict that in 10-15 years unmanned vehicles will become full participants on the road. Flow is the world community currently ready for the emergence of unmanned vehicles on the roads? There are a number of specialists who believe that there are still many difficult issues to be solved on this way, such as, for example, who will be responsible for the road traffic accident (RTA) caused by an unmanned vehicle, whether the drone will be easy prey for hackers of not and how to protect it from possible use for terrorist purposes etc. The article proposes ways to solve a number of problems related to technical and legal regulation. In the future, the introduction of unmanned vehicles (BTS) on public roads should reduce the number of emergency situations, which will lead to improved road safety.
Keywords: unmanned vehicle, legal regulation, road safety.
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- Kahrimanova D.G., Magomedova N.G. Innovacionnaya ekonomika i sovremennyj menedzhment, 2019, no. 1, pp. 42-44.
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THE ELECTRIC BUS RANGE EXTENSION BY APPLYING THE CHEMICAL-KINETIC ENERGY ACCUMULATOR AND A GEAR MOTOR BUILD-IN THE WHEEL
Cezarij G. Nadaraia, chief engineer, firstname.lastname@example.org,
«INTEHSYSTEM» LLC, 8, Televizorny per., Krasnoyarsk, 660062, Russia,
Ivan J. Shestakov, Dr.Sc., professor, email@example.com,
Aleksandr A. Fadeev, Ph.D., as.professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Reshetnev University, 31, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy av., Krasnoyarsk, 660014, Russia,
Maksim N. Kulikov, general director, email@example.com,
Viktor G. Ashihmin, technical director, firstname.lastname@example.org,
«NSC» LLC, 30-28, Dekabristov st., Krasnoyarsk, 660021, Russia,
Andrej I.Selivanov, engineer, email@example.com,
Valerij Je. Sulejmanov, general director, firstname.lastname@example.org,
«INTEHSYSTEM» LLC, 8, Televizorny per., Krasnoyarsk, 660062, Russia,
Zaza G. Nadaraia, Senior lecturer, email@example.com,
FSBEI НЕ KrasSAU, 90, Mira pr., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Abstract. The use of vehicles based on electric traction reduces the environmental load in the city, and the use of perspective types of energy storage devices and built-in gear motors in the wheels of transport not only increases the energy efficiency of the vehicle, but also contributes to significant financial savings. The most perspective type of urban transport is an electric bus, which does not require the laying of paths and power supply contact networks. Therefore, electric buses are becoming more widespread in the world. To assess the efficiency of the use of electric vehicles, the formula for calculating the power reserve of electric vehicles is given, with the use of which the calculation and comparison of the main technical characteristics of electric buses of different manufacturers are made. To increase the practical power reserve of electric vehicles, a combined traction drive with two energy sources — a battery and a flywheel drive (connected to the wheel drive with a multi-threaded continuously variable transmission) is proposed, which is used as a buffer power source during acceleration, regenerative braking, when driving on ascents and descents. As a result, for one acceleration-braking cycle, part of the energy spent on accelerating the car returns to the batteries (on average, 40...60%). A constructive scheme of the electric vehicle power plant is proposed, which includes two chemical-kinetic energy storage devices - two counter-rotating flywheels with accumulator batteries mounted on them and generator shafts on the principle of a high-torque gyro motor. To accelerate the flywheels to the operating speed, the braking energy obtained from the build-in gear motors in the wheels of the electric vehicle is used.
Advantages of the solution
1. Controlled energy consumption and recovery with the help of a gear motor control system and a chemical-kinetic energy storage (CKES) due to the alternation of acceleration and braking cycles.
2. Due to the rotation of the CKES flywheel with mounted batteries, the specific energy of the batteries is increased by 24%.
3. When accelerating, braking and entering a turn, the stability of the electric vehicle is increased due to the increase of the rotational speed of the CKES flywheel of chemical-kinetic energy storage.
Keywords: Electric bus, chemical-kinetic storage, gear motor, energy recovery.
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Alexander N. Shalamov, Ph.D., senior scientific researcher, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. The article considers the physical basis of interaction of passive type working elements with the soil in cutting depth depending on physical and mechanical properties of the soil and geometric parameters of the working element, type of ripper. It is shown that when cutting the soil with narrow passive knives, the intermediate and lower cutting zones are formed. The process of soil deformation in each cutting zone (upper, intermediate, and lower cutting zones) has been analyzed. The application of the theory of plasticity in the solution of the flat problem of pressing blunt and sharp stamps in the environment, which compresses passes into a viscous-plastic state, to determine the effort of cutting the ground in the lower cutting zone. When developing a physical and mathematical model of deep ground cutting, it is proposed to use the principle of application when the cutting force is defined as the sum of cutting forces occurring in each of the cutting zones. A physical and mechanical model of deep cutting of soil has been developed, where the force of cutting of soil in the zone above the critical cutting depth (in the upper zone) is determined by Balovnev V.I. cutting theory, and in the zone below the critical cutting depth (in the lower zone) the static theory of plasticity of V.V. Sokolovsky is used in terms of the task of pressing the stamp into the plastic half-plane taking into the pressure.
Keywords: physical basis of deep soil cutting, the cutting zone, tight passive working bodies of earth-moving machinery, the critical depth of cut, elastic-plastic deformation, visco-plastic deformation.
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В статье рассматривается вариант моделирования поведения водителя в системе «водитель – машина», оценивается влияние составляющих системы на управляемость машины и обосновывается необходимость упреждающих действий в связи с задержками в системе.
динамическая модель, система «водитель – машина», психофизиологические характеристики водителя, система автоматического регулирования, моделирование поведения водителя.
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- Васильченков, В.Ф. Военная инженерная психология как составная часть автомобильной эргономики: монография / В.Ф. Васильченков. – Рязань: РВАИ, 2005. – 203 с.
Sergey V. Lее, Dr.Sc., professor, email@example.com,
Ondabek Zh. Rabat, Dr.Sc., professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Nazym Dzh. Saydinbayeva, senior lecturer, email@example.com,
Goncharov KazADI, 415V, Raiymbek avenue, Almaty, 050061, Republic of Kazakhstan
Abstract. The paper presents a crane coordinate reading system (CRS) to increase the efficiency of cranes in handling containers at a container point. The CRS system is based on the principle of achieving a minimum of crane movements on the container site. A device for reading information about the coordinates of the crane contains sensors of the position of the crane mounted on the crane, and screens, mounted on stationary guide elements in the form of two wires, suspended on supports. The proposed coordinate reading system (CRS) is developed using proximity inductive sensors as addressees and metal screens as address carriers. The use of such a set of reading elements allows each position to be encoded for radio transmission and for displaying on a panel (screen) in the crane operator’s cabin. Thus, for each crane, a work plan is issued containing the sequence number of the operations, the inventory number of the container, as well as a command for each operation (where to get and where to put the container). Using the proposed gantry crane operation control system ensures faster container search, increases the proportion of containers loaded directly into the car, improves the quality of accounting, ultimately reduces container hours and provides the ability to transport additional goods with an existing container fleet, reduces crane operator fatigue and thereby increases labor productivity.
Keywords: gantry crane, container, crane coordinate reading system, overload efficiency, productivity, transport task, dowel, sling.
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Anatoliy I. Dotsenko, Dr.Sc., professor, DOTSENKO_ANT@mail.ru,
Konstantin P. Mandrovskiy, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Yana S. Sadovnikova, engineer, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. The article reviewed the research aimed at improving the efficiency of using earthmovers. On the example of a single-bucket excavator, a mathematical implementation of the method of ensuring the efficiency of machine use is proposed. The concept of efficiency includes high productivity and a high level of quality of work performed by the machine. The quality of the single-bucket excavator is to ensure the accuracy of the linear and angular geometric parameters of the excavation. The object of study in this article is the transport time of the excavator bucket. Ensuring the efficiency of use of the earthmoving machinery is supposed to be achieved by minimizing the time of transport movement of the working equipment. The determination of the minimum allowable transport time of an excavator is proposed to be carried out by the method of automated calculations. The article proposes the introduction of dependencies, predicting and setting the speeds of movement of the working equipment from the conditions for maintaining the stability of the excavator, to the mathematical software of the automated control system of the machine. The results of research may be of interest in improving the matematic and software systems of automated control of the operation of earth-moving machines, in particular, single-bucket excavators. The effect of the use of such systems will be to minimize the time for performing work operations, while maintaining the accuracy of the geometrical parameters of the earthworks.
Keywords: earthmoving machinery (EM), one-bucket excavator, efficiency of use, automatic control system (ACS), working equipment, quality, tachogram.
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- D'yakov I.F. Stroitel'nyye i dorozhnyye mashiny i osnovy avtomatizatsii (Construction and road machines and the basics of automation), Ul'yanovsk, UlGTU, 2007, 516 p.
- Latyshenko K.P. Avtomatizatsiya izmereniy, ispytaniy i kontrolya (Automation of measurement, testing and control), Saratov, Vuzovskoye obrazovaniye, 2019, 307 p.
- Karasev G.N., Mandrovskiy K.P. Vestnik MADI (GTU), 2007, no. 3 (10), pp. 54-56.
- Mandrovskiy K.P. Interstroymekh-2016, Materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii, Moscow, Natsional'nyy issledovatel'skiy Moskovskiy gosudarstvennyy stroitel'nyy universitet, 2016, pp. 119-128.
- Kubayev S.T. Sovremennyye materialy, tekhnika i tekhnologii, 2016, no. 1 (4), pp. 121-128.
Gennadii V. Kustarev, Ph.D., professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia,
Stanislav I. Zhukov, Ph.D., Senior lecturer, Stanislav2008.email@example.com,
DVOKU, 158, Lenin st., Blagoveshensk, 675021, Russia
Abstract. The article deals with the results of experimental studies to substantiate the rational parameters of the working equipment of advanced engineering and road machines, created for the units of the Land forces. The results of three-stage experimental studies, including testing a large-scale model of the working body of the bulldozer blade on the stand of physical and mathematical modeling, testing a bulldozer with an improved blade, made in full size, strength testing of a full-scale physical model of advanced excavator equipment, developed in the environment of three-dimensional engineering computer-aided design SolidWorks, are given. According to the results of the first stage of experimental studies, regression equations and their graphical descriptions were obtained for different versions of the experiment, which allowed to reveal the dependence of the force, the length of the soil prism set and the time of the soil prism set on the cutting angle and the angle of rotation of the blade in the plan.According to the results of the second stage of experimental studies, it was found that the use of an upgraded bulldozer blade with openers that are not involved in the process of cutting the soil will increase the productivity of the machine by 20%. According to the results of the third stage of experimental studies, it was found that the replacement of the standard two-section boom, previously used on similar machines, with the improved three-section boom equipment, developed in the environment of three-dimensional engineering computer-aided design SolidWorks, will increase the strength characteristics and load capacity of the boom equipment by 70% and expand the functionality of the machine.Keywords: experimental studies, engineering and road machines, working equipment, scale models, three-dimensional modeling, performance, structural strength.
- Kustarev G.V., Zhukov S.I. Vestnik MADI, 2019, no. 2 (57), pp. 31-48.
- Adler Yu.P., Markova E.V., Granovskii Yu.V. Planirovanie eksperimenta pri poiske optimalnix uslovii (Experiment planning in search of optimal conditions), Moscow, Nauka, 1976, 279 p.
- Schuschkevich V.A. Osnovi elektrotenzometrii (Fundamentals of electrocentrale), Minsk, Nauka i texnika, 1975, 352 p.
- Vetrov Yu.A. Rezanie gruntov zemleroinimi mashinami (Soil cutting by earthmoving machines), Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1971, 360 p.
- Zelenin A.N. Osnovi razruscheniya gruntov mexanicheskim sposobom (Fundamentals of soil destruction by mechanical means), Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1968, 375 p.
- Zelenin A.N., Karasev G.N., Krasilnikov L.V. Laboratorniy praktikum po rezaniyu gruntov (Laboratory workshop on soil cutting), Moscow, Vysshaya shkola, 1969, 310 p.
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- Pastuh S.N. Osnovi aktivnogo eksperimenta (The basics of active experimen), Moscow, VIU, 2001, 120 p.
- Malyar V.S., Smager I.V., Sivinuyk A.V. Modelirovanie konstrukcii, system i rabochix processov pri obosnovanii taktiko-texnicheskix trebovanii k sredstvam inghenernogo vooruzheniya (Modeling of structures, systems and work processes for substantiation of tactical-technical requirements for engineering equipment), Moscow, VIA, 1982, 36 p.
- Zhukov S.I. Vestnik MADI, 2016, no. 3 (46), pp. 35-42.
- Zhukov S.I., Lazarev S.P., Kustarov R.A., Kotov N.N. Patent RU 167528 U1, 01.06.2016.
- Alaymovskiy A.A. Kompiuternoe modelirovanie v inzhenernoi praktike (Computer modeling in engineering practice), St. Petersburg, BXV-Peterburg, 2005, 780 p.
- Lukina S.V., Krutyakova M.V., Rubakova M.V. Fundamentalnie issledovania, 2013, no. 10-11, pp. 2431-2435.
- Burenok V.M. Vooruzhenie i ekonomika, 2017, no. 4 (41), pp. 3-8.
- Lavrinov G.A. Vooruzhenie i ekonomika, 2017, no. 4 (41), pp. 48-58.
Mikhail P. Malinovsky, Ph. D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Evgeny S. Smolko, student, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. Braking properties significantly affect the safety and competitiveness of special purpose vehicles. To assess the effectiveness of the braking system, parameters such as the average limiting deceleration, braking distance for a given initial speed, response time and peripheral forces on wheels are used. The design calculation consists of determining the braking distance during emergency braking with maximum deceleration, which is possible according to the conditions of adhesion of the wheels to the supporting surface. The calculation of the indicators of braking performance is carried out according to the braking diagram, that is time the dependence of deceleration or braking force based on the dynamic characteristic of the braking system. The brake diagram includes the phases of the delay of the brake system, the growth of deceleration and braking force, braking with steady deceleration, and brake release. The traditional integral method for calculating the braking parameters, considering the separate action of forces on the tractor and trailer, has several disadvantages, in particular, when calculating the braking distance, the delay phase is considered as a single phase, braking of all axes of the articulated vehicle is considered synchronous, real dimensions of the vehicle are not taken into account, the maximum value the specific force on all axes is equal to the coefficient of adhesion, the law of change of the braking force on the wheel is considered linear, the braking distance is considered to be independent of the vehicle mass. In the article, the authors refine the traditional calculation method, showing into consideration the asynchronous braking of the axes of each link of the road train, nonlinearity of the pressure versus time, the effect of the partial load of the vehicle, length of the brake pipes and coefficient of adhesion of wheels to the road surface on the response time of the pneumatic brake drive.
Keywords: vehicles of special purpose, pneumatic brake drive, diagram of pressure functions, braking diagram, reaction time, braking distance, nonlinear function
- Kristal'nyj S.R., Toporkov M.A., Fomichjov V.A., Popov N.V. Avtomobil'. Doroga. Infrastruktura, 2015, no. 2 (4), p. 2.
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- Demidov L.V. Vestnik MADI, 2013, no. 4 (35), pp. 17a-21.
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- Pavlov V.V. Proektirovochnye raschety transportnyh sredstv special'nogo naznachenija (Design calculations of special vehicles), Moscow, MADI, 2014, 116 p.
- Gladov G.I., Zajcev S.V., Kotovich S.V. Konstrukcii transportnyh sredstv special'nogo naznachenija [Construction of special vehicles]. Moscow, MADI, 2014, 164 p.
- Vereshchagin S.B. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta im.
N.E. Baumana. Seriya Mashinostroenie, 2011, no. 3 (84), pp. 56-63.
- Revin A.A., Dygalo V.G. Avtomobil'naja promyshlennost', 2014, no. 11, pp. 3-5.
- Malinovskij M.P., Kozlov Yu.N. Avtomobil'. Doroga. Infrastruktura, 2018, no. 4 (18), p. 5.
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- Malinovskij M.P., Roldughin V.D., Kuleshova N.A. Vestnik MADI, 2016, no. 4 (47), pp. 68-74.
- Kristal'nyj S.R., Popov N.V., Fomichjov V.A. Vestnik MADI, 2012, no. 2 (45), pp. 10a-17.
HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES & TRANSPORT TUNNELS
THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE SYSTEM OF MECHANICAL FOAMING OF BITUMEN IN THE PRODUCTION OF WARM ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXES
Anatoly I. Dotsenko, Dr.Sc., professor, DOTSENKO_ANT@mail.ru,
Sergei S. Gorokhov, undergraduate, S.S.firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. The article presents the results of studies of the influence of technological factors on the system of mechanical foaming of bitumen in the production of warm asphalt concrete mixes (WACM). To obtain high quality WACM, it is necessary for the multiplicity of the formed bitumen foam to be in the range of 10¸20 and its stability does not exceed 70¸90 seconds. These figures depend on the water (steam) pressure at the nozzle inlet and the amount of water supplied. Foaming manifold reduces bitumen viscosity and improves its adhesion to stone material, which can reduce binder consumption by 10-15% and reduce the time and temperature of heating of stone material. When mixing bituminous foam and mineral material, it is advisable to use oil-soluble surfactants to increase adhesive properties. Foaming collector makes asphalt mixing plant more versatile in use, provides the ability to work in different modes and produce both hot and warm asphalt concrete mixes. It has been found that, as a result of a decrease in viscosity and coefficient of friction on the mixer parts, the loads on its parts are reduced. As a result, energy consumption is reduced by 10¸15%, that is equivalent to improved by 20¸25% performance.
Keywords: foaming of bitumen, warm asphalt concrete, mixer, surface active substances.
- West R.S. Tekhnicheskij vestnik dorozhnogo hozyajstva, 2013, no. 4. pp. 43-45.
- Gorokhov S.S. Mir dorog, 2019, no. 118. pp. 59-61.
- Smesi asfal'tobetonnye dorozhnye, aerordromnye i asfal'tobeton. Tekhnicheskie usloviya, GOST 9128-2013 (Mixes asphalt concrete road, airfield and asphalt concrete. Technical conditions, State Standart 9128-2013), Moscow, Standartinform, 2014, 29 p.
- Dotsenko A.I. Kompleksnaya avtomatizaciya proizvodstva asfal'tobetonnoj smesi s uchyotom vliyaniya faktorov eyo transportirovki, ukladki i uplotneniya (Integrated automation of production of asphalt mix taking into account the factors of its transportation and styling and compaction), Doctor’s abstract, Moscow, MADI, 2005, 42 p.
- Kalachnikova T.N., Sokol'skaya M.B. Stroitel'stvo i remont asfal'tobetonnyh pokrytij (Construction and repair of asphalt concrete surfaces), Moscow, Econ-Inform, 2010, 344 p.
- Lupanov A.P. Pererabotka asfal'tobetona na ABZ (Recycling asphalt in an asphalt plant), Moscow, Econ-Inform, 2012, 210 p.
- Nemchinov M.V., Sister V.G., Silkin V.V., Rudakov V.V. Ohrana okruzhayushchej sredy pri proektirovanii i stroitel'stve avtomobil'nyh dorog (Environmental protection in the design and construction of roads), Moscow, ASB, 2009, 277 p.
- Silkin V.V., Lupanov A.P. Tekhnologiya i organizaciya rabot na proizvodstvennyh predpriyatiyah dorozhnogo stroitel'stva (Technology and organization of works at industrial enterprises of road construction), Moscow, ASB, 2010, 224 p.
- Trautvain A.I., YAdykina V.V., Zemlyakova D.V., Chistyakov Yu.P. Dorogi i mosty, 2015, no. 1 (33), pp. 320-333.
- Uchakov V.V., Olchovikova V.M. Stroitel'stvo avtomobil'nyh dorog (Road construction), Moscow, Knorus, 2016, 572 p.
Michail V. Nemchinov, Dr. Sc., professor, email@example.com,
Alexander S. Kholin, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. Russia has relatively little experience in the construction and exploitation of road clothes with asphalt concrete pavements (not more than full 40 years in the XX century). Mass country motorization began only after 1992. Therefore, the traffic on the roads was not great for many years, and the car fleet did not have a high load capacity, which allowed the exploitation of trucks with only 2 or 3 axles. The speed of the trucks was not great either. All this made it possible to build road pavements with relatively small thickness. The above fact was the basis for the appearance of the terms “hard” and “non-hard” pavement, respectively, for road structures with a cement concrete layer and structures without such layer. Nowadays the traffic intensity, the carrying capacity of trucks (and even cars), and the road speeds have increased dramatically. As a result, the requirements for strength and, especially, for durability of road pavements have greatly increased. The article formulates the basic principles of designing of strength and, which is especially important, durable road pavements. The history of the development of standards for the road pavements’ design and construction is briefly described. The considerations are given on the content of the concepts of “hard” and “non-hard” pavements. It is noted that modern road pavements are quite strength, but, as a rule, not durable, i.e. they have a short exploitation life until destruction. The concepts of “strength” and “durability” of road pavements are formulated. The physical essence of the process of destruction of the road pavement based on asphalt concrete mixes is examined and analyzed. The principles of the low durability of asphalt concrete coatings and the directions of its increase are formulated. The main provisions of the methodology of strong and durable pavement’ design are outlined. It is recommended to use the asphalt concrete fatigue indicator for various existing types of clothes’ loading as the main criterion in evaluation of the durability of non-hard road clothes with asphalt concrete pavements.
Keywords: clothing hardness, strength, durability and its increase, design methodology, material fatigue.
- Instruktsiya po naznacheniyu konstruktsiy dorozhnykh odezhd nezhostkogo tipa (Instructions for the appointment of non-rigid pavement designs), Moscow, Avtotransizdat, 1961, 77 p.
- Kaganovich V. Ye., Kupin P.P. Raschot i konstruirovaniye nezhostkikh do-rozhnykh odezhd (Calculation and design of non-rigid pavement), Omsk, Zapadno-Sibirskoye knizhnoye izdatel'stvo, Omskoye otdeleniye, 1964, 87 p.
- Ivanov N.N. Konstruirovaniye i raschot dorozhnykh odezhd (Design and calculation of pavement), Moscoow, Transport, 1973, 328 p.
- Nemchinov M.V., Kholin A.S., Korochkin A.V. Dorozhnyye odezhdy s as-fal'tobetonnymi pokrytiyami. Fizika raboty. Metodologiya proyekti-rovaniya i raschota (Asphalt concrete pavement. Physics work. Design and calculation methodology. Strength and durability), Moscow, ASV, 2019, 292 p.
- Normy i pravila standartizatsii konstruktsiy dorozhnykh odezhd, RStO 01 (Norms and rules for standardization of pavement designs, RStO 01), Cologne, FGSF Ferlag GmbH, 2015, 50 p.
- Dopolnitel'nyye tekhnicheskiye usloviya i trebovaniya (spetsifikatsii k kontraktu) po ustroystvu sloyov bez primeneniya vyazhushchikh materialov v dorozhnom stroitel'stve, ZTV SoB – StB 04 (Additional specifications and requirements (specifications to the contract) for the device layers without the use of binders in road construction, ZTV SoB – StB 04 ), Cologne, FGSF Ferlag GmbH, 2015, 48 p.
- Ukazaniya po raschotu dorozhnoy odezhdy s asfal'tobetonnym pokrytiyem, RDO Asphalt 09 (Guidelines for calculating pavement with asphalt pavement, RDO Asphalt 09), Cologne, FGSF Ferlag GmbH, 2015, 35 p.
- Robinson R., Daniel'son U., Sieyt M. Upravleniye remontom i soderzha-niyem avtomobil'nykh dorog. Konstruktsii i sistemy (Management of repair and maintenance of roads. Constructions and systems), Moscow, Informavtodor, 2003, 343 p.
Andrey V. Burakov, Ph.D., lecturer, email@example.com,
Evgeny E. Sobolev, graduate, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MERC AF «AFA», 54a, Stary Bolshevikov str., Voronezh, 394064, Russia
Abstract. Runways, taxiways and other infrastructure facilities of state aviation aerodromes should provide the required service life and safety level for aircraft, passengers and cargo. Damage, accumulated during operation of hard airfield coatings, including depressurization of expansion seams and, as a result, the formation of through shrinkage cracks on the coating, significantly worsens its technical condition. The work of expansion seams as a structural element of hard airfield coatings and the crack tightness depend on the physicomechanical and operational characteristics of the aerodrome bitumen-polymer sealants used. The article discusses the technological processes of the sanitation of expansion seams and cracks in hard aerodrome coatings using the method of aerodrome sealing materials modifying in a magnetic field, as well as the physical and mechanical characteristics of bitumen-polymer aerodrome sealants treated with a magnetic field of various strengths, taking into account the temperature range of the material operation in the coating, are being investigated. To predict the mechanical behavior of aerodrome bitumen-polymer sealants in expansion seams and cracks in hard aerodrome coatings, an experimental study was conducted out taking into account the rheological characteristics of the material. An original technical solution for modifying aerodrome bitumen-polymer sealants in a magnetic field is presented. Sealant processing modes have been set, allowing to increase its creep and relaxation rate.
Keywords: technology of sanitation of expansion seams and cracks, hard airfield coating, bitumen-polymer sealant, modification of the sealing material in a magnetic field, creep, relaxation.
- Nosov V.P. Avtomobil'nye dorogi, 2006, no. 12, pp. 81–86.
- Smirnov E.N., Sokolov B.C., Klyuchnikov G.Ya. Diagnostika povrezhdenij aerodromnyh pokrytij (Diagnosis of damage to airfield coatings), Moscow, Transport, 1984, 152 p.
- Glushkov G.I. Zhestkie pokrytiya aerodromov i avtomobil'nyh dorog (Hard coverings of airfields and highways), Moscow, Transport, 1994, 349 р.
- Razrabotka tekhnologii modificirovaniya ger-metiziruyushchih materialov dlya deformacion-nyh shvov zhestkih aerodromnyh pokrytij v elektromagnitnyh polyah. SHifr: «Vejgela», otchyot o NIR (Development of a technology for the modification of sealing materials for expansion joints of hard airfield coatings in electromagnetic fields. Cipher: «Weigela», Research report), State reg. no. 1610788, Inv. no. 2776, Voronezh, VUNC VVS «VVA», 2016, 122 p.
- Rekomendacii po tekhnologii sanacii treshchin i shvov v ekspluatiruemyh dorozhnyh pokrytiyah, ODM 218.3.036-2013 (Recommendations on the technology for the rehabilitation of cracks and seams in operating road surfaces, Road methodical document 218.3.036-2013), Moscow, Rosavtodor, 2013, 59 р.
- Kovalenko P.V. Vestnik Polockogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2008, no. 2, pp. 128‑133.
- Vinogradov G.V., Malkin A.Ya. Reologiya polimerov (Rheology of Polymers), Moscow, Himiya, 1977, 438 р.
- Chang, Day Han. Reologiya v processah pererabotki polimerov (Rheology in the processing of polymers), Moscow, Himiya, 1979, 368 p.
- Koltunov M.A. Polzuchest' i relaksaciya (Creep and relaxation), Moscow, Vysshaya shkola, 1976, 277 р.
- Urzhumtsev Yu.S., Maksimov R.D. Prognostika deformativnosti polimernyh materialov (Prediction of the deformability of polymer materials), Riga, Zinatne, 1975, 416 p.
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR ROAD COATING REGENERATION WITH FOAMED BITUMEN IN CHINA
Cheng Haiying, Ph.D., professor, email@example.com,
Inner Mongolia University of Technology,
49, Aimin st., Xincheng district, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, PRC,
Nikolai D. Seliverstov, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Daria A. Makarova, doctoral student, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. China has entered the period of large-scale road repair, and a large number of waste asphalt pavement materials will be produced every year. Regeneration technology of road surface is the main means of large-scale road repair. Foam bitumen-based coating regeneration technology has the obvious benefits of "energy saving, environmental protection, and cost-effectiveness", so it has been positively praised by the road community. The article presents the properties of bitumen-foamed pavements, the operational and economic characteristics of foamed bitumen and changes in the technical specifications for the construction of foamed bitumen-based pavements. In order to promote the development of foamed asphalt construction technology, the systematic spread of the technology of construction, the cold in-place recycling technology of processing foamed asphalt, the cold mix recycling technology of foamed asphalt plant and the warm mix technology of foamed asphalt were discussed, and a new method of producing the asphalt mixture was developed on the basis of the existing asphalt mix station with the addition of asphalt foaming module. Scientific progress in research, existing problems, concrete countermeasures to eliminate them and prospects for development were analysed.
Keywords: foamed asphalt, cold in-place recycling, cold mix recycling, warm mix technology, cold mixing of new mixtures.
- CyaoSyuefen. Ministerstvotransporta: v 2020 godu skorostnay adoroga dostignet do 150 000 kilometrov, http://www.chinahighway.com/news/2018/1177080.php
- Departament kompleksnogo planirovaniya Ministerstva transporta Kitajskoj Narodnoj Respubliki. Statisticheskij byulleten' razvitiya transportnoj otrasli, http://zizhan.mot.gov.cn/zfxxgk/bnssj/zhghs/201803/t20180329_3005087.html
- Van Cyuanlej. Czyansi Stroitel'nye Materialy, 2016, no. 7, p. 208.
- Van YAn'. Dorozhno-stroitel'naya tekhnika i stroitel'naya mekhanizaciya, 2017, vol.34, no.9, pp. 81-88.
- Spravochnik Wirtgen po holodnoj tekhnologii regeneracii, 2004, Shanghai, Wirtgen (China) Machinery Co., Ltd., 2004, 243p.
- ZHen' Suan'cze, Van YAn'li. Tekhnologiya i upravlenie stroitel'noj tekhnikoj,2006, no.7, pp. 71-75.
- Suan' Czuvan. Stroitel'naya tekhnika, 2005, no. 4, pp. 22-23.
- Huan Sunchan, Syuj Czyan', Cin' YUnchun'. Tekhnologiya dorozhnogo dvizheniya (Redakciya prikladnyh tekhnologij), 2006, no. 8, pp. 5-10.
- Yаn Czin'. Municipal'naya tekhnologiya, 2017, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 31-35.
- Syuj Shifa, Li Mejlin, Chzhan Libin'. Dorozhno-stroitel'naya tekhnika i stroitel'naya mekhanizaciya, 2009, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13-17.
Vasiliy G. Kurlyand, Ph.D., professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Vasiliy V. Kurlyand, Senior Lecturer, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. This paper reviews the most common causes and mechanisms of some bridge collapses, which have taken place in Russia and round the world over the last decades. These factors are classified as natural factors (flood, scour, wind, etc.) and human factors (improper design and construction methods, collisions, overloading, corrosion, lack of inspection and maintenance, etc.) The most tragic consequences are the collapses of pedestrian bridges. Analysis results of these collapses often prove to be very valuable, generally expanding the knowledge base of the civil engineering community through understanding and eliminating the causes of collapses. Most of the collapsed bridges were classified as structurally defective prior to collapse. Similar mistakes can be avoided in the future by learning from the while, studying and evaluating the causes of collappses of these bridges.
Keywords: bridge, pedestrian bridge, defects, failure, collapses, safe exploitation, collapses of bridges.
- Issledovanie RBK: pochemu v Rossii malo mostov, https://www.rbc.ru/research/society/24/05/2016/573de5139a79478774746561
- Koncepciya uluchsheniya sostoyaniya mostovyh sooruzhenij na federal'noj seti avtomobil'nyh dorog Rossii (na period 2002 – 2010 gg.), http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200034371
- Transportnaya strategiya Rossijskoj Federacii na pe-riod do 2030 goda, https://www.mintrans.ru/documents/3/1009
- Po ruhnuvshemu v Primor'e mostu ezhednevno ezdili sotni gruzovikov, https://primamedia.ru/news/491572/
- Lobanovskij Yu.I. Delo o tancuyushchem moste, http://www.synerjetics.ru/article/flutter.htm
- Kurlyand V.G. Transportnoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 5, рр.19-20.
- Cook W. Bridge Failure Rates, Consequences, and Predictive Trends, https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3187&context=etd
HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF A MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM MANAGEMENT FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF NORTHERN DELIVERY GOODS
Nadezhda A. Filippova, Ph.D., associate professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Vladimir M. Vlasov, Dr.Sc., professor, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia
Abstract. The use of new technology is of great importance for improving the economic efficiency of the North. This is due to the high cost of labor, the need for arrangement and maintenance of visiting professionals and their families. The creation of transport capable of productive work in a harsh climate − the main direction of technological progress. It is impossible to achieve results in this area without the use of innovative technologies, satellite navigation and telecommunications. The main direction of solving these problems is the use of new information technologies based on the organization of transport and logistics centers (TLC) in the North of the Russian Federation in the main cargo traffic nodes. The development of a telecommunications system helps to significantly reduce inventory levels in warehouses, reduces the number of transshipments, speeds up transportation, eliminates the need for storage of goods, and therefore saves credit resources, improves transport and logistics services to the region. For the design and development of a database of dispatch centers for the control and accounting of transport work within the framework of a distributed multimodal transport system for the carriage of goods by road, a deductive method for analyzing the subject area was used in the work. The article deals with the hierarchical levels of management of multimodal transport system for the transportation of goods of Northern delivery.
Keywords: management, transport and logistics center, telecommunication platform, integration platform, dispatching management.
- Obyazov V.A., Smahtin V.K. Vodnye resursy, 2017, no. 3, pp. 227–234.
- Ventcel' Е.S., Ovcharov L.A. Teoriya sluchajnyh processov i eyo inzhenernye prilozheniya (Theory of random processes and its engineering applications), Moscow, Vysshaya shkola, 2018, 383 p.
- Gnedenko B.V., Hinchin A.Ya. Elementarnoe vvedenie v teoriyu veroyatnostej (Elementary introduction to probability theory), Moscow, Nauka, 2017, 169 p.
- Ventcel' Е.S. Teoriya veroyatnostej (Probability theory), Moscow, Nauka, 2016, 576 p.
- Vlasov V.M., Еfimenko D.B., Bogumil V.N. Informacionnye tekhnologii na avtomobil'nom transporte (Information technology in road transport), Moscow, Akademiya, 2018, 256 p.
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Radion S. Ayriev, Adviser to the Deputy Director General, firstname.lastname@example.org,
SUE "Mosgortrans", 22/21, Building 1, Raushskaya embankment, Moscow, 115035, Russia,
Maxim A. Kudryashov, lecturer, Head of Sector, email@example.com,
MADI, 64, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125319, Russia,
SUE "Mosgortrans", 22/21, Building 1, Raushskaya embankment, Moscow, 115035, Russia
Abstract. The article reviews the main problems and principles of state regulation of taxi transportation at the federal and regional levels. A draft of recommendations and proposals to improve the organization of taxi transportation in the Russian Federation. The main factors affecting the safety of taxi transportation are considered. The level of professional skill of the driver is reviewed, as one of the most important factors determining the reliability of his work, and directly affecting the number of committed traffic accidents. A voluntary accreditation scheme of companies providing services for the transportation of passengers and baggage by taxi is proposed. Issues of preparation and certification of drivers of passenger taxis within the framework of holding the FIFA World Cup 2018 in Moscow were reviewed. A training and methodological complex in the field of organization of passenger and luggage transportation by passenger taxis has been developed, including the training program of the course "Organization of passenger and luggage transportation by passenger taxis" of 8 hours and test tasks for it. The developed tests were evaluated and the statistical task solvability level was determined.
Keywords: voluntary accreditation, taxi transportation, transport safety, certification.
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Victor D. Kondrat’ev, Dr.Sc., professor, firstname.lastname@example.org,
MADI, 64 Leningrad Avenue, Moscow, 125319, Russia
Alexander V. Shchepkin, Dr.Sc., professor, email@example.com,
ICS RAS, 65 Profsoyuznaya street, Moscow 117997, Russia
Abstract. The main activities in the field of road safety improvement are analyzed. It is noted that the program‑targeted approach made it possible to identify the most important areas of application of allocated resources, the use of which made it possible to achieve significant progress in maintaining the life and health of road users. Achieving the goals formulated in the Road Safety Strategy in the Russian Federation for 2018 ‑ 2024 makes it necessary to significantly intensify the work on the preparation, adoption and implementation of regulatory legal acts, primarily at the federal level. The organization of activities to ensure road safety seems to be most effective when using the project approach, and, as an element of this approach, ensuring the coordination of actions to achieve the goals of the project. In modern practice, such coordination is often absent due to regular amendments and additions to the existing legal field. One of the methods to improve the practice of consideration and adoption of regulatory legal acts may be the comprehensive assessment of the priority of regulatory legal acts that are under adoption. Moreover, the priority of a legal act depends not only on legal study, social relevance and feasibility, but also on its coordination.
Keywords: road safety, legal act, integrated assessment, binary structure, logical convolution matrix.
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Abstract. The article emphasizes the importance of improving the technical and organizational level and ensuring sustainable financial condition of the transport industry to ensure the competitiveness of Russia, the impact of transport services on the most important aspects of the state development, as well as the importance of accelerated introduction of digital technologies to improve the quality of transport services. The main problems of the transport industry, which in the first place include: insufficient investment in rolling stock and innovative projects, are revealed; the low level of financial and economic indicators of the transport industry; organizational, methodological and financial unavailability of many enterprises of the transport industry for the implementation of innovative projects, etc. Considered the possibility of resolving many of them using digital technologies in order to implement the adopted on this issue of legal acts, Programs and decrees of the President. The authors assess the main digital investment projects implemented in the transport industry in terms of their impact on the financial performance of enterprises. The importance of establishing a business risk management system based on the information base and using modern methods of data processing, forecasting, evaluation and analysis is emphasized. The possibilities and risks of using cryptocurrencies and technologies of the distributed register, allowing: to replace intermediaries between users of currencies; to reduce transaction costs; to provide simplicity, speed and safety of cash payments; to use online platforms for investment of temporarily free funds in financial market instruments, are revealed.
Keywords: enterprises of the transport industry, digital innovation projects, systems of transport processes, monitoring of financial condition, information and financial services, financial resources, financial indicators, digital financial assets, risk management.
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